This book explores the characteristics of casino capitalism in Macau under Chinese sovereignty and administration. It argues that casino capitalism propelled the region’s economic prosperity and social stability from 2002 to 2019. Yet casino capitalism also brings negative social impacts. China has encouraged Macau to shift from its overdependence on casino capitalism to economic diversification and integration with the Greater Bay Area. However, the path of economic diversification is destined to be long and difficult.
Adherence to COVID-19 Precautionary Measures: Applying the Health Belief Model and Generalised Social Beliefs to a Probability Community Sample
Background: In the face of the global pandemic of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), people’s adherence to precautionary behavioral measures (e.g. social distancing) largely influences the effectiveness of those measures in containing the spread of the coronavirus. The present study aims at testing the applicability of the health belief model (HBM) and generalised social beliefs (i.e. social axioms) to explore strategies for promoting adherence to COVID-19 precautionary measures.
Methods: We conducted a telephone survey with a two-step stratified random sampling method and obtained a probability sample of 616 adults in Macao, China (18–87 years old; 60.9% women) in April 2020.
Results: Our participants showed stronger adherence to some COVID-19 precautionary measures (e.g. face mask wearing; 96.4%) but not others (e.g. social distancing; 42.3%). Their adherence to those measures was found to be significantly associated with four HBM factors and two social axioms, after controlling for gender, age, and years of education.
Conclusions: The HBM and the generalised social beliefs of social cynicism and reward for application can be applied to understanding adherence to precautionary measures against COVID-19. Strategies based on beliefs were proposed to facilitate the promotion of precautionary measures.
Prevalence and Associated Factors of Internet Gaming Disorder among Community Dwelling Adults in Macao, China
Background and aims: Internet gaming disorder (IGD) has been mainly studied among adolescents, and no research to date has examined its prevalence in general Chinese adult populations. This study estimated the prevalence of probable IGD in community-dwelling adults in Macao, China. Associations between IGD and psychological distress (i.e., depression and anxiety) as well as IGD and character strength (i.e., psychological resilience and purpose in life) were also tested.
Methods: A random, representative sample of 1,000 Chinese residents (44% males; mean age = 40.0) was surveyed using a telephone poll design from October to November 2016.
Results: The estimated prevalence of probable IGD was 2.0% of the overall sample and 4.3% among the recent gamers (n = 473), with no statistically significant sex and age effects observed (p > .05). The two most prevalent IGD symptoms were mood modification and continued engagement, despite negative consequences. Probable IGD respondents were more vulnerable to psychological distress (25.0% and 45.0% for moderate or above levels of depression and anxiety, respectively) than their non-IGD counterparts. They also reported a lower level of psychological resilience than non-IGD respondents. No significant buffering effect of the two character strength variables on the distress–IGD relationship was found.
Discussion and conclusions: These results provide empirical evidence that IGD is a mental health threat not only to adolescents but also to adults. IGD was significantly associated with psychological distress, which should be addressed in conjunction with IGD symptoms in interventions. Inclusion of gamers of both sexes and different age groups in future prevention programs is also recommended.
This book provides an essential overview of trade between Brazil and China, analyses the regulatory framework for Brazil’s foodstuff exportation and China’s foodstuff importation, and identifies the main products, market shares, and e-commerce strategies etc. In addition, based on the statistics for Brazil’s food exports to Mainland China, Hong Kong and Macau as separate customs areas, the book explores the role of Macau and calls for intensifying its links with Portuguese-speaking countries, including Brazil.
Working for a Better Future: Social Mobility Beliefs and Expectations of Filipino Migrant Workers in Macau
Objective: Household theory of labour migration assumes that the decision to work in another country is a family’s strategy to improve prospects of socio-economic mobility. We inquired into the social cognitive processes associated with this goal by applying model of pathways to socio-economic mobility, but extending the types of causal conceptions related to social mobility that are considered important in the Philippine context.
Method: We surveyed 246 Filipino migrant workers in Macau, who answered questions about perceptions of the socio-economic status of their family (before they worked abroad, presently, and 10 years after), socio-economic mobility causal conceptions (merit, luck, faith in God, social networks), and goal-attainment strategies (goal engagement, goal disengagement).
Results: Migrant workers expect improved socio-economic status of their families compared to before, and they expect further improvement after 10 years. They endorsed faith in God and meritocracy as important causal factors to mobility. Path analysis indicated two pathways to socio-economic mobility expectations: (1) engagement- promoting pathway—involving faith in God and meritocracy as causal conceptions related to goal engagement, and higher socio-economic mobility expectations and (2) disengagement-promoting pathway—involving luck as causal conception related to goal disengagement, and lower socio-economic mobility expectations. Conclusion: Although working abroad is fraught with uncertainties, Filipino migrant workers aspire for upward socio-economic mobility for their families, which they seek to attain by working hard and persistence, which in turn relate to causal conceptions of mobility that involve controllable factors.
The Comorbidity of Gambling Disorder among Macao Adult Residents and the Moderating Role of Resilience and Life Purpose
Macao, China’s only city with legalized casinos, has maintained a high prevalence of gambling participation and gambling disorder (GD) over the past decade. The mental health risks associated with such high levels have been overlooked. In order to estimate the comorbid prevalence of GD with depression, anxiety, and Internet gaming disorder (IGD) and to explore the potential buffering effect of psychological resilience and purpose in life, this study obtained a representative adult Chinese sample (N = 1000, 44% male, aged 18–97 years) from a telephone survey conducted between October and November of 2016. As hypothesized, the highest psychiatric comorbid prevalence was observed in the GD subgroup (n = 19, 21.1% probable IGD, 26.3% probable depression, and 37.0% probable anxiety). All these mental health problems could increase one’s proclivity to GD, and vice versa. Psychological resilience was found to buffer the association between anxiety symptoms and probable GD (X2 (1) = 4.30, p = 0.04/GD symptoms, Fchange (1,162) = 6.29, p = 0.01), whereas purpose in life did not display any hypothesized moderating effect. These results indicate the usefulness of mental health screening for GD, taking into consideration its associated risks, and of fostering psychological resilience in prevention and treatment programs.
Drawing on data derived from WeChat and the life experiences of its users, this study explores the daily affordances of WeChat in the cross-border lives of dual migrants from the Chinese mainland. In this study, 24 low-skilled Chinese dual migrants from the mainland who were working as security guards and cleaners were recruited to participate in in-depth interviews and group discussions. The lives of these dual migrants are marked politically, socially, and economically by their vulnerable status and by the stresses and vicissitudes that characterize their daily commute between Zhuhai (their place of residence) and Macao (their place of work). Dual migrants from the Chinese mainland use electronic media for support, pleasure, and access to information. One of the main online platforms they utilize is WeChat, a social networking site that is available on mobile phones. By framing these dual migrants’ usage of WeChat within the affordances of social media, this social networking site functions as a digital mediated space that provides migrants with communal solidarity, social interaction, access to information, and, in some cases, economic benefits.
Studying typhoon risk perception and its influencing factors help reveal potential risk factors from the perspective of the public and provide a basis for decision-making for reducing the risk of typhoon disasters. The purpose of this study is to assess the risk perception and related factors of Macao residents in China. Information was collected from 983 participants using a structured questionnaire with an eective utilization rate of 94.2%. Descriptive statistics, univariate analysis and correlation analysis were used to analyze the data. The results show that, on the one hand, there are significant dierences in risk perception on the factors included: (1) age, education and other demographic characteristics; (2) health status, occupation, length of stay, residence area, residence floor, family organization structure and individuals monthly income and other personal or family conditions; (3) channels and quantity of typhoon information acquisition; (4) degree of mastery of relevant risk aversion knowledge. On the other hand, some factors still have a moderate or high level of correlation with risk perception: (1) The older the respondent, the lower the education level, the lower the income, the lower the risk perception of property damage, health impact and life threat. (2) The more children or elderly people in the family, the higher the risk perception of respondents. (3) The more risk knowledge, the lower the risk perception. (4) The more channels for obtaining information, the lower the fear level and the overall impact of risk perception. (5) The stronger the risk perception, the more positive disaster response behaviors would be taken by the public. In addition, the more information acquisition channels and the less risk knowledge respondents have, the greater the risk perception of the overall impact and the fear of the typhoon; the fewer information access channels and less risk knowledge respondents have, the greater the risk perceptions of property damage, health eects and life threats.