Ⅶ 附録

Archaeological Investigation at Hac Sa,Coloane,Macau and Its Significance

Chung Tang(The Chinese University of Hong Kong)


Between spring and summer of 1994, in view of promoting the historical and cultural work in Macau, the Macau Foundation offered enthusiastic support to the ancient Macau archaeological plan proposed by Wai-ming Cheng from the Department of Chinese Studies of the University of Macau. In July of the same year, with the cooperation of archaeologists from the Centre for Chinese Archaeology and Art and Institute of Chinese Studies of the Chinese University of Hong Kong (hereafter the Centre), and the tremendous support of the Municipal Council of the Islands, archaeological investigations in Macau were carried out.
  On August 24th of 1994, Chung Tang and Wai-hung Ng from the Centre, and Wai-ming Cheng from the University of Macau, conducted surface investigations on the two islands Taipa and Coloane. As a great number of modernized establishments have been erected along the coast of Taipa, and the original physical look of the area has thus been altered, it was impossible to assess the sites from the surface of the land. The coastal areas of Coloane have also been well-developed in recent years. Due to again the large number of buildings in Cheoc Van and Ka Ho, investigations could not be carried out either. A grand Westin Hotel was built in the northeastern corner of Hac Sa, mining the original sand dune site. And the southwestern corner of Hac Sa was entirely assigned to and included in the Hac Sa Park, in which tennis courts, lawns, a swimming pool and children amusement park were built. At the back of the sand dune is marshland, on the west of which multi-storeyed and densely populated establishments are in the process of being built. Therefore, it is really not certain if the Hac Sa site has been ruined by the prosperous building activities in recent years. Further trial excavations and investigations will be necessary (Fig. I-3).
  Surveys and excavations were carried out between January 2nd and January 17th of 1995, with the Macau Foundation doing the overall planning, approval from the Municipal Council of the Islands, and provision of four gardeners from Hac Sa Park to assist in the excavation. Members of the excavation team are as follows:

  From the Centre:
   Director -- Chung Tang
   Archaeology Field Work Assistants -- Wai-hung Ng
                      Wan-cheung Wong
  From the Department of Chinese Studies of the University of Macau:
   Lecturer -- Wai-ming Cheng
   Students -- Ka-lai Chau
         Chon-chit Tang

  In view of the amount of archaeological investigations, excavations and studies carried out and achievements made in China, the work done in South China has been far inferior than that accomplished in north China, and the work conducted in the southeastem coast has not been as well done as that in the Yangtze River Basin (Chang 1987:11). The winding coast and numerous bays along southeast China are ideally habitable places for prehistoric man. As from 1985, the Centre has enthusiastically embarked on prehistoric archaeological studies in the southeastem coastal areas of China and the nearby islands (Tang 1991a, 1994a). Hong Kong and Macau were where the work began. Based on the detailed first hand excavation materials gathered from these two areas, a general comparative analysis was made between the ancient culture around the Pearl Delta and that in the south of East Asia.
  In the decade between 1985 and 1995, together with archaeologists from Mainland China and overseas, the Centre has conducted numerous excavations and surveys on various sites in Hong Kong and Macau, the most significant ones being Lung Kwu Tan (Tuen Mun) in the New Territories, Tung Wan, Pak Mong, Sha Lo Wan, Pa Tau Kwu and Mui Wan Tsui in Lantau Island, Tai Wan in Lamma Island, Hong Kong and Hac Sa in Coloane, Macau (Fig. I-2).
  In order to begin systematic and scientific studies on the prehistoric history in Macau, it is rather important to conduct actual archaeological excavations. From the archaeological discoveries, people in Macau will be able to learn how man lived there previously. In the studies of the history of Macau, there has been a dearth of prehistoric information. Therefore, we have come to the conclusion that archaeological excavations must be carried out in Macau. In 1995, together with the scholars from Macau, the archaeology team from the Chinese University of Hong Kong conducted excavations at the Hac Sa site in Macau. This is part of the project of studying the prehistoric cultural sites around the Pearl Delta.
  There are some 400 known prehistoric sites around the Pearl Delta. In recent years, remarkable developments have been made in archaeological studies along the coast of southeast China. In particular, tremendous achievements have been made in archaeological work around the Pearl Delta and this has become the focus of attention in the academic world. In only the past few years, some 40 sites have been explored. We estimate that this kind of rapidly increasing exploration activities, along with new information discovered and scientific studies done on the materials gathered, will surely govern the future direction of the archaeological work around Pearl Delta in the next decade (Tang 1991a). According to preliminary statistics, there is a total of 375 relatively significant sites of Neolithic and Pre-Qin Period discovered around the Pearl Delta (see Fig. Distribution, Showing Archaeological Sites of Neolithic and Pre-Qin Periods in the Pearl Delta Area).


  Hac Sa is located in the east of Coloane. The bay of Hac Sa, which is surrounded by cliffs on both sides, extends from northeast to southwest, opening towards the southeast along the coast. The coastline is of some 1,200 m long. Hac Sa faces the boundless South Sea, and behind it is the Tak Sek Tong mountain, the highest mountain in Coloane. Hac Sa Village is located at the foot of the mountain. With its ever-flowing brooks, nearby seashores, exuberant woodlands and pastoral sceneries, Hac Sa is an attractive site (Fig. Ⅱ-1).
  In 1988, Centre for Hong Kong-Macau Geography of South China Normal Institute had conducted a thorough survey on the geomorphology of Hac Sa under Nan-wei Liu's instructions (Liuand He 1992). According to their findings and this author's observation, there are a few note-worthy characteristics regarding the Hac Sa site:
  1. The bay, with no natural coastal barriers, opens out southeastward to the sea at an angle of 135. Tong Gu Wan in Taishan Guanghai, Wang Fu Zhou in Xiachuan Island and Hei Sha Wan in San Zao, ali bear similar characteristics.
  2. The shape of the bay is like a medium-curve bracket "{". Around the two "arms" of the "bracket" (bay) are giant precipitous granite rocks and promontories. The bay curves towards inland and is formed by sedimentary deposits. Based on the coastline of the present promontories, the bay is of 600 to 700 m deep; and there is a distance of approximately 1,200 m between the two promontories, basically the same distance as the sand dune out along the beach.
  3. There are different levels of sand dunes in the bay. The top surface ofthe one close to the sea is smooth and even, with relatively steep slopes on both sides. The steepness of the inner slope, top surface and outer slope are respectively 3-4.2 and 7-8 . Relatively coarse white sand covers the top surface while a mixture of black sand can be found on the slopes. Between the first and third levels of sand dunes, there is the formation of yet another level, a second level of rather smooth and flat sand dune, on which a car park is presently built. The third level is made of red sandy clay. There used to be a lagoon (now all dried up) between the sand dune and the depository hill slope. In addition, there are some marshlike but not very well grown marshland.
  4. The mouth of the Hac Sa Bay opens wide and deep, with a depth of 2 to 3 m of water near the shore. The Tai Dam Cape in the east is a coastal promontory, constantly pounded by strong waves. In the south is the Hac Sa Cape which is a similar rock promontory. Due to constant corrosion by sea waves, corroded caves are formed.


  One 4×8 m2 denoted by 95A Grid was opened, with an area of 32 m2. The division of the six layers are as follows (Fig. Ⅲ-1):
  1. Surface Layer: 70-80 cm thick, can be further divided into two sub-layers.
  a. Upper Part: 40 cm thick, of landfill dirt used in the building of Hac Sa Park, with a layer of green grass on top, and a mixture of some modem age refuse.
  b. Lower Part: 30-40 cm thick, of sandy earth, with a bowl in underglaze blue and a green glaze rim.
  2. Layer One: Hue 7.5 YR 8/8, 50-60 cm thick, of sandy earth with no viscidity; and no intricate mingling between the grass and tree roots. The deposits are rather smooth and even. Around the mid level of this layer, potsherds, stone implements and fired clay fragments were unearthed. Judging from the condition of the deposits, cultural relics and structure of the site, one may say that this was a rather stable activity floor (Fig. m-2).
  3. Layer Two: Hue 7.5 YR 6/8, 26-37 cm thick, of sandy earth, finer than that of Layer One; of a brighter colour than that of Layer Three, lacking viscidity. This is a culturally sterile layer.
  4. Layer Three: Hue 7.5 YR 7/8, 30-37 cm thick, of sandy earth, of a dimmer colour than that ofLayer One. A number of potsherds and flakes were unearthed from this layer. In view of the distribution of the unearthed cultural relics, this may have been a floor with sparse activities.
  5. Layer Four: Hue 5 YR 6/8, approximately 20 cm thick, of sandy earth, with a certain degree of viscidity, ofa dimmer colour than the layer above. This is a culturally sterile layer.
  6. Layer Five: Hue 5 YR 5/8, over one metre thick, of sandy earth, relatively viscid. In the upper part of this layer, a piece of coarse potsherd and weathered granite were found. The piece of weathered granite might have been moved into this layer. Further studies have to be made before determining the characteristics ofthis layer.
  7. Layer Six: Hue 5 YR 5/8, of undetermined thickness, sandy earth with even stronger viscidity. This is culturally sterile layer.


  1. Layer One -- Fired Clay Fragments and Cobble Features
  a. Layer One Cultural Remains and Features
  Due to the relatively small excavation area, the 95A Grid being of only 32 m2, there are definite difficulties in disceming the characteristics of the cultural remains as well as the site. From the excavation condition of Layer One: basically finds are discovered all over the upper part of Layer One, with apparently fewer ones across squares 1, 7 and 8 in east-west direction, and more between squares 3 to 6. Judging visually from the concentration of the cultural remains, they can be categorized into two groups, A and B (Fig. Ⅳ -1). Between the two, fired clay fragments and cobble features were also discovered.
  Group A: Most of the finds were discovered in Squares 3B, 4A, 4B and 5A. By observing the characteristics of the cultural composition, the distribution of stone implements in group A is rather dense, including stone adze, stone grinders, grooved stone and ring grinding stone. Stone omaments include flakes, preforms, disc cores, cores and stone rings, etc. Obviously, the above-mentioned stone implements are related to felling trees, grinding plant foods and processing bone tools. The grinders were broken. Judging from the very similar thickness, form and breaking surfaces of the two pieces of grinders, and the fact that they can be refitted, it is estimated that they were broken due to heat and thus discarded. Traces of breakage were found on the blade of the stone adze which otherwise is still usable. A great number of stone omaments were discovered. When first being excavated, no. 22 and no. 23 were found overlapping each other, with no. 22 pressing against no. 23 from above (Plate 9-2), and the mid section of no. 23 was broken. Also, no. 19 and no. 20 stone cores were found overlapping each other when unearthed (Plate 9-1). It is estimated that the two groups of preforms and cores were intensionally left behind and in situ. Within such a small area of group A, there was the discovery of such a variety of stone implements produced as a result of different ring production processes, it is possible that this was a location closely related to stone omament production. As for pottery discovery in group A, the concentration area and stone artifacts found are similar. Distinguishable types include three pieces of bowl-shaped pot, one piece of rim and many other coarse corded potsherds from the middle or bottom portions of potteries.
  Group B: Besides a few flakes and cores, most of the cultural remains found were potsherdswhich were mainly distributed in B6, B7 and C7. A few pieces of gravel were scattered in the centre of the northern section.
  b. Fired Clay Fragments and Cobble Features
  Fired clay fragments and cobble features (Fig. Ⅳ -2) were found among B4, C4 and C5, covering an area of approximately 1.5 m long, 14 cm wide and 20 to 30 cm thick from northeast to southwest. Among the several fragments of fired clay found, the surface area of the kidney-shaped fired clay fragments in C4 and C5 are relatively big. These fired clay fragments are formed by burning, thus hardening the viscid clay transported from the sandbars outside the area. Some of the clay mounds are larger, of approximately 11.5x7 cm, with one side polished and trimmed while the other side remaining unpolished and rough, with large cobbles emerging. During excavation, the rough side of the fragment was found facing up (No. 83). The diameters of the clay fragments vary from 4 to 5 cm. Pressed-on stripes can be seen on some of the fragments. In addition, a group of severely weathered granite rocks were found among the above-mentioned kidney-shaped fired clay fragments. Altogether five pieces were found laying out from northeast towards southwest. It is possible that this granite grouping was set up by people then, along with the fired clay fragments to form a kind of structure. Moreover, quite a few broken coarse potsherds were found scattered around the fired clay fragments. Judging from the excavation condition of the fired clay fragments, granite rocks and potsherds, it is possible that this area was a fireplace location.
  The group B unearthed finds were mainly of potteries, whereas in group A, an abundant variety of stone artifacts, along with, in particular, rather complete information on stone ornament production were found. The apparent disparity in the group A and group B compositions reflect the different characteristics of the two locations (Fig. Ⅳ -3).
  2. Cultural Remains of Layer Three and Layer Five in Situ
  From B2-C2 to C2-C7 in Layer Three, the area is of only 12 m2. Not many finds were discovered, only a few potsherds and flakes were found mainly from a depth of 5.7 to 5.5. Judging from the relic distribution, this may have been a living floor (Fig. Ⅳ -4).
  From B4-B5 to C4-C6 in Layer Five, the area is of only 6 m2, only one piece of coarse potsherd and one piece of granite cobble stone were unearthed. As granite stones do not naturally exist in sand dunes, it is very possible that this cobble stone may have been moved from elsewhere. To determine the characteristics of this layer, further excavations are necessary (Fig. Ⅳ -4).


  1. Stone Tools
  Stone implements consist of: grooved stones (Nos. 1, 3,5), adzes (Nos. 2, 4), grinders which can be refitted (Nos. 6, 7), a ring grinding stone (No. 8), a chipped stone tool (No. 9), a chisel (No. 10), a stone hammer (No. 11), stone hammer flakes (No. 42, Plate Nos. 13,17), split cobbles (Nos. 12,35), flakes (Nos. 13,15-16, 25-26, 28, 30-36, 39-58), retouched stone tools (Nos. 14, 21), disc cores (Nos. 17, 19-20), a broken ring (No. 18), preforms (Nos. 22-24), blank (No. 29), cores (Nos. 27,38), and cobble (No. 37) (Fig. Ⅴ -3).
  2. Ring Assemblages
  The production of stone omament has to follow along several procedures, and base on different techniques. Therefore, in studying the production techniques of stone rings, one must fully grasp the product characteristics revealed during the various production procedures. Based on the different order of procedures seen taken in producing stone rings of different characteristics, the entire stone ring production process can be restored. In another words, in studying the stone ring production, one must consider the static information obtained from the real objects unearthed, with the picture of the dynamic production process of the past in mind. Therefore, there must have been good reasons for the emergence of particular products or discarded pieces from any stage of the stone ring production process.
  Based on the order of production procedures and differences in production techniques of stone rings, the FOUR production procedures are presented as follows:

  1) Procedure One: Collection & Chipping Techniques
     a. Identification of Individual Cobbles and Collection of Cobbles
     b. Production of Cores and Flakes
     c. Processing ofRing Preforms
  2) Procedure Two: Grinding Techniques
     a. Grinding of Blanks
  3) Procedure Three: Drilling Techniques
     a. Drilling & the First Ring
     b. Disc Cores
  4) Procedure Four: Cutting, Polishing & Other Techniques
     a. Edge Trimming & Polishing
     b. Making of an Opening

  According to the preliminary analyses of the above-mentioned four procedures, there are a few note-worthy characteristics regarding the stone ring omaments unearthed from Hac Sa Layer One:
  1) From the point of view of cobble collection, the mineral quartz found in Hac Sa Layer One came from around the river bed where cobbles were scattered. Among the 39 pieces of stone artifacts, 21 individual cobbles were identified. Except for nos. 1 and 7 where eight and four pieces were found respectively, two to three pieces were found at each of nos. 2 to 6. Refitting is rarely seen within an individual cobble. And there are limited data on stone cores and processing of primary flakes. Based on these findings, it is possible that flake production and preform processing of Procedure One were not done at this location. Due to the relatively small excavation area, further explorations in future are necessary. From studying Procedure One, only two pieces of core were found and data on refitting of cores and flakes were also insufficient, further studies are thus necessary to be carried out on flake production techniques.
  2) The blank of the ring products discovered from Hac Sa Layer One was only partially polished on two sides, which can be viewed as transitional products between preforms and completely polished ring blanks (No. 29). This bears great importance in proving that ring blanks are not so-called "chipped scrapers" or "disc like cores". Regretfully, only one piece of ring blank was found in Hac Sa, providing insufficient information as to whether the blanks were completely polished or only partiallypolished along the edges. Further studies are to be conducted on the great number of two-sided polished ring blanks unearthed from Pak Mong, Hong Kong.
  3) There are mainly two types of drilling techniques, namely, single-side drilling and oppositeside drilling. To compare the three pieces of crystal disc cores discovered from Hac Sa and the similar artifacts found in Pak Mong, it was noted that the form and size of no. 17 disc core is similar to that found in Pak Mong, while nos. 19 and 20 are larger in size (Fig. Ⅴ -8). According to data obtained from Hac Sa, single-side drilling can be aptly applied on crystals of 7 mm thick, whereas opposite-side drilling on those of 14 mm thick. To determine which kind of drilling techniques had been used on which type of ring blanks, with regards to their thickness and quality, we need to conduct many experiments and tests on the actual artifacts unearthed. Moreover, as there were limited data on Procedure Four during this excavation in Hac Sa, discussions will have to be carried out in future.


  1. Chronology and Relations with Other Sites in the Pearl Delta
  In 1995, cultural remains were unearthed from Layers One, Three and Five at the Hac Sa site. The relative chronology of these layers are clearly identified. According to the results provided by Yang Sui Sun Ancient Pottery Thermoluminescence Laboratory of the Chinese University of Hong Kong, the dates of the samples are indicated as follows: Layer One, P22-3,780±530 b.p., P37-3,450± 450 b.p., Layer Three, P50-5,700± 800 b.p., P51-5,010± 710 b.p. (Lee 1996). Also, the ↑14C data gathered from Layer One is 4,190± 210b.p. (Chen 1996).
  The typical pottery found at Layer One of the Hac Sa site is the bowl-shaped pot. Seven pieces of bowl-shaped pot rims were found, but the number of individual pots is uncertain. The term "bowl-shaped pot" is widely adopted by archaeologists working in Pearl Delta. Up till now, there have been no strict definition or attributive analysis regarding this term. Recently, among the cultural remains of layers Three and Four discovered from Zhu Hai Ping Sha, Shui Jing Kou, again seven pieces of bowl-shaped pot were discovered. According to analyses, the characteristics of the bowl-shaped pot are found to be: of coarse pottery, with flat body, straight opening, and almost round bottom. They can be further classified into two types. Type A: comparatively big; the outward rim slightly curls inward; both the opening and inner body are comparatively straight; and the bottom of the body curves inward to form a round and flat bottom. Type B: comparatively small; made of brown pottery; square-rimmed; with a groove on the mouth; the body of the pot narrowing inward to form a round and thick bottom. According to the thermoluminescence date given by Academia Sinica, Geological Centre in Guangzhou, Layers Three and Four at the Shui Jing Kou site are dated back to be 4,560± 460 and 4,840± 480 b.p. respectively, and probably are of Late Neolithic culture (Gu and Li 1993:37).
  Statistics suggest that some 20 sites were discovered where bowl-shaped pots were found; in the Pearl Delta area, namely, Gong Bei Xi Gua Pu (Yang and Xu 1985), Cao Tang Wan (Liang and Li 1991), Qian Shan Zhen Nan Sha Wan (Zhao 1991a), Sha Kou Wei (Zhao 1991b), Lan Tang (Zhao 1991c), Bai Sha Keng,Sha Bao Di (Zhao 1991d), Xie Di Jiao (Zhao 1991e), Ling Jiao Ju (Long 1991), Ya Po Wan (Tang and Li 1991),Dong Au Wan (Li and Li 1990), Dong Au Island Nan Sha Wan (Liang 1991a), Shui Jing Kou (Gu and Li 1993); in Hong Kong, namely, Tai Wan (Finn 1932-36), Sham Wan (Meacham 1978), Hai Dei Wan (Williams 1980), Sha Lo Wan Ham Kwok (Tang 1991b), Pa Tau Kwu (Tang 1991b, 1994b), Pak Mong (Tang 1992), Sha Lau Tong (Chau 1995), Sha Lo Wan West Promontory (Drewett 1995), etc (Fig. Ⅵ-1). The bowl-shaped pot concentration ismainly found on the archipelagos around Pearl Delta and the coastal sandbars. Bowl-shaped pots are usually found along with the coarse round-bottomed pots, concave-bottomed pots, flange-rimmed and flange-bottomed pots, basins with outward-curved rims, etc. The representative bowl-shaped pot assemblage sites include the Qian Shan Zhen Nan Sha Wan, Dong Au Wan, Pak Mong and Pa Tau Kwu sites, which were all scientifically excavated (Fig. Ⅵ -2). Bowl-shaped pots were found among round-bottomed pots and concave-bottomed pots, at the Pak Mong burial site, with excellent archaeological context (Tang 1992). Dong Au Wan is a rather typical and promising site. Yan Li, in his "Analysis on the Dongaowan's Remains", accurately analyzes that coarse pottery is the most prominent; and most of the earthenwares are round-bottomed, concave-bottomed or foot-ringed. No flat-bottomed pottery is found. Only one piece of three-legged pottery is discovered. Among the artifacts, basins, stands and grates are the most common. According to the thermoluminescence dating tests, the Dong Au Wan site is dated to be 3,950 to 3,550 b.p. (Li 1990). Both the Dong Au Wan and Shui Jing Kou sites are dated by thermoluminescence dating tests, results of which are significantly different. Based on preliminary analyses of the pottery assemblages, we can find close resemblance between the pottery found at Layer One of the Hac Sa site, and the first group of pottery found at the Shui Chong site. There are two estimates on the date of the bowl-shaped pot assemblages: one being before 4,000 b.p., another being 4,000 to 3,500 b.p. However, Yu Shi Ge were discovered from contemporary sites such as Sha Chau, Tai Wan, Cun Tou, Mao Gang. Hac Sa Layer One culture extensively spreads over the area surrounding Pearl Delta and its age is estimated to be 4,000 to 3,500 years old.
  2. Hac Sa and the Prehistoric East Asia
  Up till now, Yu Shi workshops and related material have been discovered around the Pearl Delta such as in Hong Kong, namely, Tai Wan (Finn 1932-36), Stanley (Finn 1932-36), Tung Wan (Chen 1957, Schofield 1975), Man Kok Tsui (Davis and Tregear 1961), Chung Hom Wan (Bard 1976), Tung Kwu Island (Meacham 1976), Sham Wan (Meacham 1978), Hai Dei Wan (Williams 1980), Tai A Chau (Peacock and Nixon 1988), Lung Kwu Tan (Tang 1990), Luk Kenh (Tang 1991b), Tai Po (Tang 1991b), Sha Lo Wan (Tang 1991b, Drewett 1995), Pa Tau Kwu (Tang 1991b, 1994b), Pak Mong (Tang 1992), Lung Kwu Sheung Tan (Meacham 1993), Fu Dei, Ko Lo Wan (Meacham 1994), Tung Wan Tsai (Rogers et al. 1995), Yung Long (Meacham 1995); in Zhu Hai, namely, Dong Au Wan (Li and Li 1990), Hou Sha Wan (Li 1991a), Bai Sha (Li 1991b), Hung Qi Cun (Liang1991b), Bao Jing Wan (Xu and Liang 1991), Tang Xia Huan (The Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology, Guangdong Province et al. 1995); in Zhong Shan, namely, Yan Dun Huan (Zhao 19911f); in Shen Zhen, namely, Chi Wan, Xi Li Reservoir,Bang Di Shan, He Di Shan (Yang et al. 1994); in Macau, namely, Hac Sa, Cheoc Van, Coloane Village (Kelly 1973) (Fig. Ⅵ-3). Geographically speaking, most of the above-mentioned Yu Shi workshop sites are discovered around the coast and nearby sandbars. Not many workshop sites were found in the hinterland of Pearl Delta. As over 1,000 pieces of finds such as ring fragments, preforms, blanks and flakes were found from workshop sites such as Man Kwok Tsui and Pak Mong, it is obvious that ornament production exceeded local demands, and the possibility of using the omament products as objects of trading cannot be ruled out. At the Hai Dei Wan No. 11 burial site in Lantau Island, 14 pieces of crystal ring omaments were discovered along with a bronze axe. According to the data gathered, Hai Dei Wan is not a Yu Shi workshop site. In addition, Shi-ting Yang recently pointed out that "at the Shi Xia burial site of approximately M20, crystal rings were found, hexagon-shaped in cross section and of 2 cm in diameter" (Shi-ting Yang's letter of 12th October, 1995). These information provided major leads for studying issues such as crystal ring production, its network of circulation and demand in the Pearl Delta. Moreover, according to H. Okamura, among the three ornament workshop sites, namely, Wen Jia Tun, Guo Jia Cun and Xi Shan in Liaodong Peninsula, theWen Jia Tun site adjoins the Mu Cheng Wan sand dune on the east (Okamura 1993:5). How should this phenomenon be explained that Yu Shi ornament workshops were generally distributed in sandbar sites?
  The materials regarding ring ornament discovery at the Hac Sa site are also extensively found outside Pearl Delta. Japanese scholar, F. Fujita, points out that identical ornament production techniques can be found at as north as Lake Baikal in Siberia; and Grazkovo of Bronze Age was also discovered in the Angola Basin (Fujita 1992). According to Peter Jr Francis in the United States, similar stone ring production technique is found at as south as Tsai Kmalaya in Java (Francis 1991). At present, the earliest ring grinding stone in East Asia, of 6,000 b.p., was discovered at the Lo Jia Jiao site at the Yangtze River Basin in Zhejiang Province (Yao 1981). The ring grinding stones found at Tsai Kmalaya are similar to those artifacts found at the Yin Xu site in inner China (Chen et al. 1987); in Taiwan Province, namely, Pei Nan (Lien and Sung 1986), Bei Yeh (Liu 1990); in Hong Kong, namely, Pak Mong (Tang 1992), Man Kok Tsui (Davis and Tregear 1961), Chung Hom Wan (Bard 1976), Sham Wan (Meacham 1978), Sha Lo Wan (Drewett 1995), Yung Long (Chau 1993), Lung Kwu Tan (Tang 1990), Lo So Sheng (identified by this author in the Hong Kong Museum of History in May, 1995); in Macau, namely, Hac Sa (Kelly 1973) and in Vietnam, namely, Doc Chua in Dong Nai Province (Fig. Ⅵ -4).
  Due to certain limitations, this author has no intention to discuss in details issues such as the distribution of prehistoric rings in East Asia. The author simply wishes to emphasize that many Yu Shi workshop sites dated back to 3,000 to 4,000 years ago were discovered along the coast of Pearl Delta, and Hong River Delta in North Vietnam. As early as the 1920's, M. Colani already discovered abundant materials on omament workshops in Cho-Ganh, Vietnam (Colani 1928). In the 1930's, a great number of materials on Dong Son Period crystals, nephrites and nephrite cores were also discovered in Thanh Hoa Province by O.R.T. Janse, and scientific reports were also published (Janse 1958). After her independence, Vietnam made great developments in archaeological studies. Cultural relics such as Yu Shi artifacts were discovered in Bronze Age sites in Vietnam. Among all the ring studies, the most significant are those done by Van-tan Ha (Tran, Ha and Diep 1978) and Kim-dung Nguyen. In her recent Trang Kenh site studies, Nguyen pointed out that during the Phung Nguyen Cultural Period, there had been a Yu Shi Road from Hai Phong in the west to the Vinh Phu Province in the east. The Phung Nguyen Cultural Period Bai Tu site in Ha Bac Province (Nguyen 1989); the Trang Kenh site in Hai Phong City (Nguyen 1994); the Dong Son Cultural Period Con Cau, Ma Chua and Bei Te sites in Thanh Hoa Province (Ha 1994, Yokokura 1987:9); and the Bung Bac site in Dong Nai Province (Bui 1992: 14-21) are relatively well known Yu Shi omament workshop sites.
  On the other hand, in the past half century, numerous Yu Shi omament workshop sites were discovered from ali over the islands of Japan. As early as the early Jomon Period, Yu Shi omament workshops had been found along the coast of the Sea of Japan. The famous Yu Shi omament workshop sites A-Kodera and Akashi-A were all found along the coast. It is interesting to find such a close relationship between early Jomon Period Yu Shi omament workshops and the coastal cultural environment (Fujita 1989:25). Since then, the Yayoi Period and Kofun Period Yu Shi omament workshop sites were still found to be mainly distributed along the coast of the Sea of Japan (Teramura 1966:39). In his analyses on the distribution of the ancient Yu Shi omament workshop sites in Japan, M. Teramura concluded that characteristically, the sites generally face a lagoon, with sand dunes behind them (Teramura 1984:189).
  In conclusion, in the vast East Asia area, including the coast of Liaodong Peninsula, the southeastem coast of China such as the Pearl Delta, the coast of Indo-China such as from Hai Phong to Thanh Hoa, and as far as Hokuriku region along the coast of the Sea of Japan, a great number ofsimilar Yu Shi omament workshop sites of the Neolithic Period to Iron Age were found near the coastal sand dune areas. The close relationship between the workshops and their being situated around the sand dune areas, may not be a mere coincidence. On the other hand, a number of Yu Shi omament workshop sites were indeed found in the hinterland, and it is true that the quartz sand found on the coast was not absolutely required for ornament production. Nevertheless, based on current archaeological discoveries, it is an indisputable fact that there is a close relationship between the great number of Neolithic and Iron Age Yu Shi omament workshop sites found in East Asia and their having been mostly located near the coastal environment (Fig. Ⅵ -6). Therefore, in analysing the geomorphic distribution of the Yu Shi omament workshop sites, it may be essential to consider carefully the significant role played by the quartz sand as abrasive in omament production. The crystal ring omaments found from Hac Sa in 1995, provided relatively complete information on ring production processes. This is of important significance in studying the production techniques of prehistoric jade carving, and particularly, of producing omaments such as crystal rings in East Asia.

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